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评价题

发布时间:2014-02-06 17:32:48
 

EVALUATION题,也就是我们俗称的评价题,需要同学们选出选项对原文结论进行评价,也就是说,正确答案是决定文章结论能否成立的关键。评价题是一类比较特殊的题型,他的选项有别于其他类型的题目,选项一般是疑问句或者特殊形式的陈述句。 

 典型问法: 
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument? 
The answer to which of the following questions would be most important in determining whether implementing the proposal would be likely to achieve the desired result? 
In assessing the plan’s chances of achieving its aim, it would be most useful to know which of the following? 

 解题思路 
刚刚我们在了解评价题的时候知道,评价是可以决定文章结论能否成立的关键,但是究竟是怎样决定的呢?我们先通过一个简单的例子了解一下。 
例. 小红天天都吃10个鸡腿,所以小红一定会长胖。 
在这句论述中,逻辑关系如下: 
小红天天吃10个鸡腿——小红一定会长胖​​ 
我们已经学过假设题,那么这句论述中存在的假设就是 
这时,如果我把假设变成反问句,并对这句话给以不同的回答,看一下会对文章结论有什么样的影响: 
也就是说,对这句话的不同回答会对文章结论起到相反的影响,那么这句话就是评价。 

 正确答案形式及真题解析: 
从上题的分析,我们可以看出,评价题就是假设和削弱题的结合,而正确答案也就是在削弱题或者假设题的基础上换一种形式,做题的方式和削弱及假设题一样,答案形式就是反问附加前提是否存在。但是,虽然评价题似乎做起来需要经过比较多的判断,但是真正在做题的时候,要讨论对正确选项的不同回答对文章结论会有怎样的影响,也是要在判断选项是否与文章结论相关的基础上进行的,无需每个选项都正反两个方向进行判断。接下来我们通过几道真题来了解一下评价题的做题方法。 

例1. Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a powerful natural insecticide. The insecticide occurs throughout the plant, including its pollen. Maize pollen is dispersed by the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants that grow near maize fields. Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. When these caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they die. Therefore, by using genetically modified maize, farmers put monarch butterflies at risk. 
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument? 
A. Whether the natural insecticide is as effective against maize-eating insects as commercial insecticides typically used on maize are 
B. Whether the pollen of genetically modified maize contains as much insecticide as other parts of these plants 
C. Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the growing season when maize is releasing pollen 
D. Whether insects that feed on genetically modified maize plants are likely to be killed by insecticide from the plant’s pollen 
E. Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields 

文章翻译:某种转基因玉米具有特殊的自然杀虫作用,这种杀虫效果在植物的全身都存在,包括玉米的花粉。玉米的花粉通过风力传播,有时会被风吹到长在附近的乳草叶子上面。一些帝王蝶的毛毛虫,以吃乳草叶子为生,当他们吃了那些沾染了玉米花粉的乳草叶子之后就会死掉。所以通过种植这种转基因玉米,农民可以达到将毛毛虫至于险地的目的。 
文章逻辑见图如下: 
变异玉米花——沾染到乳——毛毛虫——蝴蝶被杀死​​​ 
文章解析: 
从文章的逻辑见图可以看出,这边文章属于手段目的型的文章,评价一下文章给出的手段能否达到作者希望的目的。值得注意的是,文章中农民想要对付的虫子是以乳草叶子为食的毛毛虫,并不是以转基因玉米为食的虫子。 
选项分析: 
A. 是否自然杀虫效果对玉米害虫的效果和普通杀虫剂的对玉米害虫的效果是一样的。首先不用急于回答“是”或者“不是”,先判断这个选项的主干内容是不是和文章有关。我们在分析文章的时候已经强调,文章讨论的是以乳草叶子为食的毛毛虫,而不是以玉米为食的虫子,所以这个选项是无关项,直接排除,不需要经过“是”与“不是”的回答来判断了。 
B. 是否玉米当中的杀虫效果在花粉中和在植物其他部位是一样的。在文中已经告知:这种抗虫效果存在于植物的全身,包括花粉。也就是说,此选项对文章已有事实进行反问,没有意义。无关项。 
C. 是否毛毛虫活跃进食的季节和玉米释放花粉的季节是同一个季节呢。这个选项很好的对文章中需要的一个环节进行提问。如果回答“是”,那么就说明,沾染了玉米花粉的乳草叶子会被毛毛虫吃掉,那么毛毛虫就没杀死了,结论成立;如果回答“否”,那么即便是乳草叶子沾到了花粉,但是因为毛毛虫不会进食,所以也不会被杀死,从而结论不成立。正确答案。 
D. 是否那些以玉米为食的虫子也会被植物的花粉杀死。无关项 
E. 是否以玉米为食的虫子会和以乳草叶子为食的毛毛虫竞争乳草叶子。无关项。 

例2. Trancorp currently transports all its goods to Burland Island by truck. The only bridge over the channel separating Burland from the mainland is congested, and trucks typically spend hours in traffic. Trains can reach the channel more quickly than trucks, and freight cars can be transported to Burland by barges that typically cross the channel in an hour. Therefore, to reduce shipping time, Trancorp plans to switch to trains and barges to transport goods to Burland. 
Which of the following would be most important to know in determining whether Trancorp’s plan, if implemented, is likely to achieve its goal? 
A. Whether transportation by train and barge would be substantially less expensive than transportation by truck 
B. Whether there are boats that can make the trip between the mainland and Burland faster than barges can 
C. Whether loading the freight cars onto barges is very time consuming 
D. Whether the average number of vehicles traveling over the bridge into Burland has been relatively constant in recent years 
E. Whether most trucks transporting goods into Burland return to the mainland empty 

文章翻译:T目前把他的货物运往B岛都是用卡车,连接B岛和主岛的唯一桥梁总是很拥堵,卡车通常要花掉好几个小时。火车可以以比卡车快的速度到达海峡,并且驳船仅需要1个小时就可以把货物运过海峡。所以为了达到节省运输时间的目的,T打算把目前的运输方式卡车换成火车和驳船。 
文章解析: 
这是手段目的型的文章。Plan:更换运输方式;Goal:节省运输时间。 
需要评价究竟替换了运输方式之后能不能达到节省运输时间的目的。 
选项分析: 
A. 是否用火车和驳船运输比用卡车运输要便宜很多。文章没有讨论花费多少的问题,无关项。 
B. 是否有些船行驶的比驳船更快。在手段目的题中,作者问的就是这种手段能否达到特定的目的,至于其他手段是否更好无关。无关项。 
C. 是否把货物从火车卸到驳船上的时间是十分费时的。与运输时间有关。回答“是”,那么即便在路途中省时,但是由于装卸货的过程非常费时,那么整个运输过程都不省时,目的达到;回答“否”,那么在路途中省时,并且装卸货过程也都很省时,那么整个运输过程将会非常省时,目的无法达到。正确答案。 
D. 是否桥上车辆的数目在最近几年中维持常数?是否维持常数对于手段能否达成目的没有关系。无关项 
E. 是否大部分的车回程的时候都空车回来?无关项。 

例3. According to a recent survey, marriage is fattening. Cited as evidence is the survey’s finding that the average woman gains 23 pounds and the average man gains 18 pounds during 13 years of marriage. 
The answer to which of the following questions would be most relevant in evaluating the reasoning presented in the survey? 
A. Why was the period of time studied in the survey 13 years, rather than 12 or 14? 
B. Did some of the men surveyed gain less than 18 pounds during the time they were married? 
C. How much weight is gained or lost in 13 years by single people of comparable age to those surveyed? 
D. Were the woman surveyed as active as the men surveyed, at the time survey was made? 
E. Will the reported gains be maintained over lifetimes of the persons surveyed? 

文章翻译:根据最近的调查显示,结婚会导致长胖。在对13年的婚姻进行调查发现,男性平均增重18磅,女性平均增重23磅。 
文章分析: 
这篇文章属于causal argument,具体的分析我们会在后面的章节进行更详细的讲解。在这篇文章中,逻辑关系见图如下: 
结婚——长胖​ 
评价这种文章,要找到选项能够说明究竟是不是这个原因导致了文章现象的出现。 
选项分析: 
A. 为什么实验调查是13年而不是14年或者12年?文章结论跟试验时间长短无关。 
B. 为什么在结婚之后有些男人增重小于18磅?文章说的增重的数目只是平均值,肯定有些人增重多于18磅,也肯定有人增重少于18磅。无关项。 
C. 在13年里,相同年级但是单身的人增重了多少呢?这里涉及到了文章中的结论和前提。如果回答“23斤”,说明不管结婚还是单身都长胖了,所以结婚并不是长胖的原因,削弱文章结论;回答“0斤”,说明没结婚就没长胖,加强文章结论。正确答案。 
D. 是否在调查当中女性更为活跃?无关项。 
E. 是否调查中的增重会维持一辈子?不管会不会继续维持下去,但是这13年里的确是胖了。无关项。 
通过这两道题可以看出,评价题是假设和削弱题的结合。选择选项排除无关项是,也是考虑和文章结论有无直接关系,在对其进行反正两方面的调查。

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