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解释题

发布时间:2014-02-06 17:32:13
 

解释题,就是选出正确选项能够解释文章中给出的现象或者矛盾。解释题在逻辑题目中考察的比例有所增加,其重要性日渐凸显,同学们应该给予足够的重视。 

 典型问法: 
Which of the following, if true, would help resolve the apparent paradox presented above? 
Which of the following statements, if true, would best explain the 1984 decrease in productivity? 
Which of the following, if true, best explains the sharp rise in the average price of new houses? 

 解题思路与真题解析 
在解释题里,文章中会给出一个现象或是两件事情之间的矛盾,然后需要你选出正确选项解释为什么文章中的现象为什么发生或者文章中为什么会出现矛盾。从上述描述中我们可以看出解释题目分为解释现象和解释矛盾两种,我们通过例题了解一下 
例1. The population of elephant seals, reduced by hunting to perhaps a few dozen animals early in this century, has soared under federal protection during the last few decades. However, because the species repopulated itself through extensive inbreeding, it now exhibits a genetic uniformity that is almost unparalleled in other species of mammals, and thus it is in far greater danger of becoming extinct than are most other species. 
Given the information in the passage above, which of the following is most likely the reason that other species of mammals are less likely than elephant seals to become extinct? 
A. Other species of mammals have large populations, so the loss of a few members of the species is not significant. 
B. Other species of mammals have increased their knowledge of dangers though the experience of generation after generation of animals. 
C. In other species of mammals, hunters can readily distinguish between males and females or between young animals and adults. 
D. In other species of mammals, some members of the species are genetically better equipped to withstand a disease or event that destroys other members of the species. 
E. Other species of mammals have retained habits of caution and alertness because they have not been protected as endangered species 

文章翻译:海象的数量之前由于捕杀而大量下降,后。来由于联邦政府的保护而回升。然而这个种群通过近亲繁殖,有一种基因的一致性,而这种一致性在其他种类的动物身上是很少见的。所以这就是为什么海象比其他动物更容易灭绝的原因。 
文章解析: 
这是一道解释现象的题目,需要你解释的就是为什么其他种类的生物与海象比更不容易灭绝,在文中能找到对应的内容,即文章最后一句话:这就是海象比其他动物更容易灭绝的原因。那么解释的原因是一样的,就是海象基因的一致性导致他们更容易灭绝。 
选项分析: 
A. 其他种群的动物数量比较多,少一两个并不重要。这个不是文章给出的解释。 
B. 其他种类的哺乳动物关于危险的知识随着世代相传增加。无关项。 
C. 其他种类的哺乳动物中,猎人很难分清公母以及长幼。无关项。 
D. 其他种类的哺乳动物,一些成员在基因上可以很好的抵御一次事件或者是疾病,而这次事件或者是疾病足以毁掉种族内的其他成员。也就是说,其他种族的哺乳动物由于基因的多样性而得以存活,正是文中所要表达的意思。正确答案。 
E. 其他哺乳动物不是濒危物种而没有受到联邦政府的保护,因此他们一直保持着警觉性。无关项。 

例2. During the day in Lake Constance, the zoo-plankton D. hyalina departs for the depths where food is scare and the water cold. D. galeata remains near the warm surface where food is abundant. Even though D. galeata grows and reprocess much faster, its population is often outnumbered by D. hyaline.
Which of the following, if true, would help resolve the apparent paradox presented above? 
A. The number of species of zooplankton living at the lakes is twice that of species living at the surface.
B. Predators of zooplankton, such as white-fish and perch, live and feed near the surface of the lake during the day. 
C. In order to make the most of scare food resources, D. hyaline matures more slowly than D. galeata. 
D. D. galeata clusters under vegetation during the hottest part of the day to avoid the sun’s rays. 
E. D. galeata produces twice as many offspring per individual in any period of time does D. hyalina. 

文章翻译:在白天的C湖,浮游生物DH,会到水的深处,那里食物匮乏并且环境寒冷。而另一种浮游生物DG,会停留在湖水的表面,食物丰沛并且环境温暖。尽管DG生长快繁殖快,但是他的数量经常被DH所超过。 
文章分析: 
这道题目在文章中出现了矛盾和差一点,你需要把矛盾解释清楚,也就是为什么DG的生长环境良好食物充沛,并且生长快繁殖快,但是数量还没有DH多。 
选项分析: 
A. 生活着湖底的浮游生物的种类是生活在胡表面的浮游生物种类的两倍。但是文章中所讨论的浮游生物只有两种,DG和DH,无关项。 
B. 浮游生物的捕食者,白鲑或者鲢鱼,在白天生活在湖的表面。也就是说,白天,这些浮游生物的捕食者会将湖面的DG吃掉,从而导致,湖面的DG数量减少,而湖底的DH因为很少会被捕食者吃掉,所以数量很有可能会超过DG。正确答案。 
C. 为了更好地使用匮乏的食物资源,DH生长成熟的比DG要慢。无关项。 
D. 在一天中最热的时候,为了躲避强烈的太阳光照而躲在植物的叶子下面。无关项。 
E. DG繁殖的速度是DH的两倍。这样的话,DG的数量应该更多才对,无法解释。 

例3. For the United States meat industry, there is good news and bad news. The bad news in that over the last three years people in the United States have been eating less meat. The good news is that during this same time period meat producer’s profits have risen steadily. 
Which of the following, if true during the last three years, contributes most to a resolution of the apparent discrepancy above? 
A. People have been eating less meat because they are more health conscious than in the past. 
B. In the United States many new restaurants that specialize in vegetarian meals have opened. 
C. Competition from the growing fish industry has forced meat producers to sell meat at bargain prices in an attempt to attract more consumers. 
D. Countries that are unable to produce enough meat for their populations have become a new and lucrative market for United States meat producers. 
E. Meat producers have invested large amount of money on advertising in order to win back consumers who have decreased their meat consumption. 

文章翻译:对于美国的肉食产业来说有一个好消息和一个坏消息。坏消息是在过去的三年中,吃肉的美国人越来越少了,好消息是与此同时,肉食产业的利润还在稳步增加。 
文章分析: 
文章存在的矛盾就是为什么吃肉的美国人少了,但是肉食产业的利润还在稳步增加,需要把这一点解释出来。 
A. 人们之所以吃的肉少了,是因为他们比以前更加关注健康问题。这只能解释人们为什么吃肉少了,但是矛盾是吃肉减少和肉食产业增加之间的矛盾。无关项。 
B. 在美国,很多饭店开始提供素食。无关项。 
C. 渔业的发展迫使肉食生产商不得不见地价格来吸引顾客。如果价格降低,利润会减少才对。 
D. 那些不能够自己生产出足够肉的国家变成了美国的肉食海外市场。也就是说,虽然美国吃肉的人少了,但是由于开发了海外市场,但是美国可以吧肉出口到国外,从而实现利润的增加,从而解释了文中出现的矛盾。正确答案。 
E. 肉食生产商投资了大量的钱在做广告上,试图重新赢回自己的顾客。如果广告成本增加,只会使得利润减少,无法解释为什么利润增加。 
在解释题中,对于现象和结论的解释(例1)考察的比例比较少,对于矛盾的解释考察比例较大,所以在做这一类的解释题目的时候,一定要找准文章中出现的矛盾点是什么。

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