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独立写作技巧

发布时间:2017-12-05 16:04:41
 

对于新托福独立写作部分,考生可以从以下角度进行分享突破,从而达到较好的复习效果。

1
、学会快速审题、列提纲

由于托福考试并不是考查考生文章的逻辑性和逻辑深度,因此没有必要费尽周折去深思熟虑,应该尽可能快速地就一个题目展开1-3个层次,然后辅之以足够的细节和例子,完成审题和列提纲的工作。

托福题目的审题要达到快速,主要有两套思路:一是逻辑判断标准的拆分,也就是所谓的万能理由通用思维;二是具体化、分情况、分领域拆开讨论。

第一个套路:万能理由、通用思维:

对于一个想法,本来就并没有什么万能理由,只是将好坏这个概念进行多项拆分,就可以形成万能理由的构造:

·
对于微观和宏观都适用的判断标准:

1)有效率(节约时间);(2)方便(步骤少,麻烦少);(3)省钱;(4)安全(不威胁健康、不威胁生命/不怕坏人、不含放射性、不具有摧毁力、抗灾害能力强);(5)耐久(保存时间长);(6)环保(污染少)

·
主要对于微观适用(针对个人)的判断标准:

7)健康(空气、医疗条件。生活压力、运动、温饱……);(8)乐趣(人多的乐趣、人少的乐趣、娱乐项目的乐趣、技术进步的乐趣……);(9)成就感;(10)生活质量(设施、工作压力……);(11)身边的其他人(朋友、家人……

·
主要对于宏观适用(针对国家和社会)的判断标准:

12)经济(农业、工业、贸易、证券市场;通货膨胀(物价)、失业);(13)政治(法律、民主(自由));(14)文化(艺术、传统);(15)技术进步(交通、通信、太空探险);(16)资源与环境(能源、环境污染)

万能理由往往可以很好地适用于偏好类的题目,因为这些题目是直接探讨好坏的,但也同时使用于有些观点类的题目,但是有一些观点类的题目,由于本身范围小,所以很难用万能理由直接构造层次,而需要用下面的第二个套路或者索性直接构思一些对应的理由或层次。

这些万能理由之所以会成为万能理由,是因为它给分析一个题目提供了通用的视角,但想要真正实用出来,还需要(1)花时间在很多题目中应用一遍并记住其中最主要的元素;(2)熟悉常用是教唆常用的单词和句型,掌握这些词汇句型的适用范围和正确用法;(3)能在所用的视角下找到足够的细节或例子。

第二个套路:具体化、分情况、分领域直接拆分:

独立写作的题目并无对错,所以如果硬要直接阐述,很可能会找不出理由或者理由抽象而牵强,因此对于无法使用万能理由的题目,往往需要对题目内容进行以下两种拆分。

1)具体化题目中的某个抽象概念从而形成拆分:

· People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing.

分析:在这个题目中,人们不喜欢做的事是一个抽象概念,可以细分为作业家务考试三个层面去谈。

· Progress is always good.

分析:在这道题目中,进步是一个抽象概念,可以细分为方便食品便捷交通电脑通讯三个层面去谈。

2)分情况、分领域讨论:

Parents are the best teachers.

分析:在这道题目中,很难直接考虑家长是不是最好的老师,所以可以换个思维,考虑在什么情况下或者遇到什么问题时,比如设计独立旅行的安全问题时当社会进步太快,价值观出现变化时当家长在某一领域有一技之长时

Many people have a close relationship with their pets. These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good?

分析:在这道题目中,很难直接考虑宠物和人的关系对人不好,因此可以换个思维,考虑对于小孩子来讲对于年轻夫妇来讲对于老年人来讲三个角度。

下一步:写提纲

写提纲式为了帮助考生确定并理清自己的思维。除了审题之外,写提纲还需要为每个审题层次提供细节、例子或解释,这样才能在写中间断的时候有话可说,保证充实具体。以下是一个较为完整的提纲例子。

                 95.Goverment spending: Outer space exploration V.S Basic needs on Earth

                 · Opinion: Outer space exploration

                 · 1: better ways to produce food and clothing:

                  -- {ways to preserve and store food}

                  -- {ways to grow vegetables and fruits}

                  -- {new types of clothing}

                 · 2: important developments in communications technologies:

                  -- {Satelite communications} [
→TV, telephone, GPS]

                 · 3: promote international cooperation

                  -- {international space station}

建议练习:

在题材分类训练的基础之上:

1
、选出20-40个题目;

2
、为这些题目列提纲,要求每个题目有2-3个层次;或者虽然只有1个层次,但有2-3层细节;

3
、每个层次下面要有足够的细节、例子、解释。

2
、学会中间段写作

中间段的写作其实非常简单,只需要把提纲中的信息按照顺序写成语句就行了,只是中国考生要学会逻辑连接、句式连接并避免抽象地空谈。

比如:

A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.

假设考生写的第一层是建工厂的好处,第二层是建工厂的坏处(注意这是一道比较/反差类题目)。现在我们写第二层:建工厂对社区不好,而想写的是环境方面的内容,提纲可以是:

Harmful: [pollution], not worth it

——Air: acid rain, ozone depletion ,greenhouse

——Water: drinking water

——Trees: floods and droughts

这个段落可以这样写:
Building large factories would be harmful to the community because it will induce environmental pollution. Factories, especially those emoloying toxic chemicals, will definitely destroy the quality of air and water in town. They generate smog and other atmospheric emissions which contribute to the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and acid rain; they dump industrial waste into rivers which are supposed to be drinking water supply; they accelerate the deforestation which is proven to be responsible for abnormal floods and regional drought. And people's health is at stake. Having a few factories is not worth that risk.

再比如:

It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer.

假设考生写的第一层是关于艺术家对社会的贡献,第二层写科学家对社会的贡献,而想写的内容是环境方面的,提纲可以写成:

· Scientists: more obvious

——Advancement: Plane, computer, vacuum cleaner

——Make our lives easier, more secure

——Help arts: CD, TV, movie, mp3

这个段落可以这样写:
The contributions scientists make to society are more obvious than those made by artists. Almost all the critical advancements that make our lives easier, such as the plane we take to travel abroad, the computers we use (whether for work or for entertainments), and the home appliances which help us cook our meals and clean our houses, come from the creative ideas and hard work of scientists. Those scientific discoveries and innovations make out work more efficient, our shopping more convenient, and our lives more secure. Plus, to some extent scientists even contribute a lot to the arts——without technological progress, there wouldn’t have been movie centers, television, and mp3 players which infuse art into ordinary people’s lives.

最后还有一例:

Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

假设考生要写第三层: 听课使我们学会服从,听课帮我们学会合作,听课让我们更深刻地理解肯本内容。现在写第二层:听课让我们学会合作,提纲如下:

· Cooperation

——Group assignment: impossible for 1 person/ need different perspectives

——Cooperate: budget time, assign tasks, be perfect, express opinions

——Ready for challenges at work

这个段落就可以这样写:

Attending class teaches students how to cooperate with others. Different from students in primary or secondary school, university students are often given group assignments which are technically impossible for one person to finish in time or which have no universal answers and, therefore, need to be contemplated from various perspectives. As a result, boys and girls are forced to learn how to work with others for a common goal——such as how to budget time and assign tasks according to each person’s skills without causing “free-ride”, how to perfect your task without annoying other team mates, and how to express your opinion about other member’s work without triggering frictions or stupid fights. All of the above make college students mature and sensible, ready to meet the challenges they will soon face in the workplace. Therefore, attending classes is necessary for university students.

通过以上三个例子,可以发现其实最重要的是在列提纲的时候组织事实,中间段只是用正确的语句和词汇表达这些事实。

建议练习:

1
、选出10个列过提纲的题目;

2
、为这些提纲的每一层设置2-3层细节;

3
、把这些层次写成中间段。

3
、学会开头短和结尾段写作:

一个饱满的开头短包含三个层次:【话题引入】层次抓住阅卷者的注意力,【主题句】层次清晰地展现观点,【结构暗示】层次提示中间段的层次结构或视角。

·
话题引入:这一层次有很多种写法,可以用故事开头,用名人名言或谚语引出话题,用语出惊人的方式开头,用描述现状的方式开头,用问句开头等。

·
主题句:这一层次的关键是把观点写清楚,可以加上“in my view”之类的信号词,可以加上针对观点的总的抽象理由,可以加上让步层次。

·
结构暗示:这一层次用一句话提示中间段将出现几个层次,或者分析问题的视角。

请看下面一例中每个层次可以怎样完成。

Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specofoc reasons and example to support your answer.

开头段可以这样写:

Progress in technology, as an inevitable fact of life, has changed people's lives dramatically. But is progress always for the best? While one considers the potentially dangerous impact of changes such as industrialization and the advent of nuclear technology, it is clear that progress, while inescapable, is not always for the best.

文章开始("Progress in technology, as an inevitable fact of life, has changed people's lives dramatically. But is progress always for the best?") 用一句话描述关键词 “Progress”在我们生活中的影响,然后用问句引出话题【话题引入】,之后用“the potentially dangerous impact of changes such as undustrialization and the advent of nuclear technology"提示读者文章后面将从两个角度入手谈这个问题【结构暗示】,最后用"it is clear that progress, while inescapable, is not always for the best"清晰地阐明观点【主题句】。

请看下面一题:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Playing games teaches us about life.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

开头段可以这样写:

Almost everyone,

from like children to adults, loves games. The types of games may change and get more complex as we grow up, but our enjoyment never changes. I believe that playing games is both fun and useful, because it teaches us the skills we need in life. Games teach us there is a cause-effect relationship, teach us about teamwork, and teach us to follow rules.

文章开始(“Almost everyonefrom little children to adults, loves games. The types of games may changes and get more complex as we grow up, but our enjoyment never changes.")用两句话描述关键词"game"对我们生活的影响【话题引入】,然后直接提出观点和理由【主题句】("I believe that playing games is both fun and useful, because it teaches us the skills we need in life."),最后用平行对称结构向读者提示文章后面的三个层次【结构暗示】("Games teach us there is a cause-effect relationship, teach us about teamwork, and teach us to follow rules.").

结尾段

当开头短把观点阐述清楚之后,结尾段从信息量上讲就成为了最不重要的段落,甚至存在没有结尾段的满分文章——言外之意是如果时间不够了,应该尽可能将中间段写完整,而不是追求结尾段的完整性。

时间不充分的时候,结尾只需要在中间段最后加上一句总结文章的话:时间充分的时候,可以写成一个简单的独立的结尾段,总结一下观点,总结一下论据(层次),然后还可以做一个简单的引申(只是不要发号召)。

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